Contrastive Analysis & Error Analysis

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درباره کتاب

Preface to the First .Edition
Teachers. linguists and psycholinguists have always been intere ted in
errors produced by second-language learners, either in their speech or
writing or both. In fact, learners' errors have been the subject of
extensive investigation and heated controveL y for quite a long time.
There have been two major approaches to the study of learner ' error .
namely Contrasti ve Analysis and Error Analysis.
The author's principal intention in writing this book has been to
provide a text for the Contrasti\'c and Error Analysis course now
widely taught at the uni versity level in Iran. The previously used
material for this course failed to cover many aspects of Error Analy i
which are dealt with in the present book. The book is also intended to
provide practicing teachers with insights into the nature and types of
errors, with which they have to deal in their daily profes ional life.
The material in this book is based on the author's lectures on
Contrastive and Error Analysis at major universities in Tehran. It has
been worked out over several years and has proven to be satisfactory
and successful. Attempts have been made to present the material
systematically. It is strongly believed that this systematic presentation
wiiirnake the teaching and reading of the material smooth and easy.
It is hoped that this book, with all its shortcomings, wi II create a
positive attitude towards errors, both on the part of educators and
students.

فهرست مطالب

Table of Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................ i
Abbreviations ............................................................................................... vi
Part I. Contrastive Anal.v. sis ...................................................... )
Chapter I. Fundamental Issues in Contrastive Analysis .......................... 3
1 . 1 Introduction ......................................................................................... 3
1.2 Historical Perspective .......................................................................... 4
1.3 Pedagogical Contrastive Analysis and Its Psycholog ical Ba is ........... 7
1.4 Di fferent V crsions of Contrastive Analysis Hypothe is .................... I 0
1.4.1 The Strong Version ... ................................................................. IO
I .4.2 The Weak Version ..................................................................... 1 I
1.4.3 The Moderate Version ............................................................... 12
1.5 Linguistic Levels of Analysis ............................................. ............... 13
1.6 Procedures for Comparing Languages ............................................... 14
1. 7 Hierarchy of Difficulty ...................................................................... 16
1.8 Markedness Theory ......................................... .................................. 20
1.9 Drawbacks and Merits of Contrastive Analysis ................................ 21
Stud) Questions and Exercises ................................................................ 24
Chapter 2. CA of Some Selected Features of English and Persian ......... 27
2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 27
2.2 A Sample of Phonological Contrastive Analysis .. ............................. 28
2.2.1 Syllable Types and Consonant Clusters in English and Persian 28
2.3 Contrastive Analysis of Some Grammatical Structures ................ .... 31
2.3.1 Prepositions in English and Persian ........................................... 31
2.3.2 Direct and Indirect Questions .................................................... 35
2.4 Contrastive Analysis of Lexis ............................................................ 38
2.5 Contrastive Pragmatics .... .. .... .............. ........ .. ... ................................. 40
Study Questions and Exercises ................................................................ 43
Part II Interlanguage and Error Analysis ..•.......................... 45
Chapter 3. Linguistic and Psychological Bases of Error Analysis ......... 47
3. I Introduction ........ ....... .......... .... ... ....... .... ............. ... ........... .. ........ .... ... 4 7
3.2 Cognitive-Learning...

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